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How the Horse Changed Native American Tribal Nations
by oliviaclark
Jun 17, 2021 | 3002 views | 0 0 comments | 250 250 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Horses are highly valued among Native American tribal nations. In ancient times, these animals had become extinct in most areas, especially North America, owing to climate change. Later, the Spanish explorers reintroduced them to America. With this occasion, which was equated to an invention or a new technology, the possibilities became endless for the tribes living in Western Plains and Northwest regions, and perceptions changed for the better. The presence of horses sparked a revolution of the generation with most tribes such as the Comanche being among the first to adopt the horse culture and abandon their sedentary lifestyles for a nomadic life. Transition to the horse culture by Native American tribal nations meant freedom and has had a turnaround effect on their art, status, hunting, life, and warfare tactics.

In particular, horses helped expand trade with other villages and amass wealth due to ease of access to markets as well as bartering of horses for hides and other goods. The horse prices were exorbitant, encouraging the ambitious tribes to keep more herds. Therefore, horses were often stolen and traded leading to transfer of power. For instance, the Mandan traded horses through villages on the upper Missouri, concentrating on the trade rather than incorporating the horse usage for practical purposes. American Indian tribes were also exposed to a global economy, using their large horse herds to go miles and facilitating trade with other tribes due to the convenient access to markets.

Horse trade also afforded western communities significant power and affluence. Consequently, social stratification emerged on the Plains, increasing a divide between the rich and poor Indians. The rich had significant power and prestige based on the value of horse herds and the ability to acquire other items that stamped authority and power. For example, the capacity for acquiring firearms from white traders in exchange for items such as buffalo robes further widened the gap. Eventually, Comanche tribes managed to establish the largest and most powerful Indian empire in North America spanning the regions from the Central Great Plains to Mexico with the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne tribes reigning the Northern Plains.

Moreover, the opportunity to ride horses expanded hunting ranges. Hunters could go further than before, which allowed them to hunt more buffaloes and bison. Horses were used in place of dogs that were initially used as hunting companions in North America, as they had many advantages that far outweighed those of dogs. For instance, horses had a large carrying capacity for lugging and ate grass surviving even in adverse conditions as opposed to dogs that were rather small and ate meat, which was harder to provide. Horses also relieved women from the burdensome duty of carrying the hunters’ possessions and allowed them to concentrate on their domestic responsibilities.

As a result, hunting expeditions and the nomadic way of life gave hunting tribes undue advantage against their farming counterparts, leading to improved quality of life, development, and population growth. Efficient and effective skills of hunting with horses helped the Native Americans obtain adequate food supply and abundance of buffalo hides to make warm robes, so that they could migrate to warmer regions during winter. Thus, the population of the Plains tribes, such as the Comanche, Lakota Sioux, and Cheyenne, grew to unprecedented numbers due to the increased ability to hunt and conquer, while the populace of agricultural tribes, such as the Mandan and Pawnee, suffered raids and attacks of diseases like smallpox. However, the immense hunting created black markets, leading to a drastic decline in the number of bison and buffalos, which were the mainstay of the Plains tribes.

Furthermore, expansion of hunting ranges triggered competition and intensified warfare with tribes keen to protect their territories. To proceed with the expansion, tribes adopted equestrian military skills, which helped resist those that were slowly accustomed to horses. Eventually, all Native Americans used horses for wars and raids. Horseback warriors were powerful and feared, could move faster than those on foot could, and were able to push and conquer other tribes from their territories. In particular, the Cheyenne and Comanche were quick to learn and train their horses for war; therefore, they conquered the Apache, Wichita, and village dwelling tribes such as the Mandan. In addition, they increased the resistance against white settlers in severe circumstances.

Horses also impacted the art scene for the Native Americans; it is common to see movies, images, paintings, embroidered clothing, and photographs of them riding across plains on horsebacks The Indians harnessed their innate artistic skills to craft decorative horse masks, war paintings, and ceremonial outfits for special occasions. Horse masks for the Native Americans, especially the western Sioux, were a sign of spiritual protection and power; they were made from buffalo hide and decorated.

Despite the significance of changes brought about by the horse culture in realigning the economy, lifestyles, and environment of Native American tribes, they were short-lived since empires that flourished in Texas Panhandle during the era came to an end in 1874. According to West (n.d.), the Comanches were ambushed and fled on foot leaving their horses captured and property destroyed. The horses were later shot by the Fourth Cavalry troops under the command of Colonel Ranald Slidell Mackenzie, ending the domination of horse tribes in the Plains.

In conclusion, the introduction of horses changed the lives of Native American tribal nations significantly. The tribes of Comanche, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Plain and Sioux Indians began relying greatly on them for their transportation, hunting, trading, art, and war needs. The horses simplified daily tasks, enabled efficiency, and increased productivity of the tribes in acquiring food, wealth, authority, and power. On the downside, the weaker communities were conquered by the stronger communities such as the Comanche, whose power was later seized by war marshals.



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Should College Athletes be Paid?
by oliviaclark
Feb 20, 2020 | 787 views | 0 0 comments | 27 27 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Every year, students across the United States sign the Student-Athlete form as a way of waiving their right to get hold of payments for the utilization of their name and image by colleges. Such students often spend significant amount of time in their classes and, at the same time, take off some time to practice and play for their learning institution. The NCAA views college athletes as amateurs incapable of receiving payment for playing their sports. Unfortunately, schools and coaches earn millions thanks to such students through salaries and endorsement deals. Apparently, it can be perceived that the NCAA and the athlete boards are corrupt and only interested in getting rich at the expense of college athletes. Furthermore, I believe that because of the above-mentioned reasons college athletes need to be compensated for their efforts for the colleges.

In 2013, it was reported that the NCAA was able to earn $918.8 million from the division 1 men’s basketball tournament. The average player in division 1 is perceived to spend approximately 44 hours weekly on sports related activities and, at the same, time attend his or her classes. It also has to be noted that college students are expected to attend classes and prepare for tests, which indicates that the life of a college athlete is a challenging one. The implication with the life of a college athlete is he or she lacks enough time, which is similar to a working individual. Furthermore, college athletes are also expected to travel from one place to another to compete with other their athletes. Travel requires one to have his or her own cash for various expenses. During all the sacrifices that are made by the college athletes, the NCAA often ends up earning from the students. Fundamentally, it is appropriate for the college athlete to be paid because what he or she does can be compared to a fully employed person.

During college games, stadiums are often filled with huge crowds of fans who come to watch college athletes compete against each other. Unfortunately, athletes are not paid, but instead, the percentage of the ticket revenue is often offered to the coaches. In other terms, college athletes can be looked at as slaves because their efforts are not fully recognized in terms of compensation. School athletes are often offered scholarships, but such incentives do not cover up for the demands initiated on them by their coaches. The claim is based on the fact that they spend most of their time engaged in sports activities and they end up not taking advantage of their academic opportunities. It is true, as schools do not offer college players access to enough education that can assist them get hold of the degrees of their choice. The fact that there is a huge possibility of a student not attaining a college degree and not being paid indicates that the career of such students often ends immediately they complete their college life. Therefore, the above-mentioned reasons indicate that it is wise and effective to reward college athletes with money since they are the ones doing most of the work.

College players should be compensated for their contribution to the college because some of them come from poverty-stricken regions within the United States. The fact that some of the college athletes come from poor background is a sure illustration that they need to be paid to help their parents. At the same time, the NCAA claims that it is not in the position to support their parents and help the athletes. The college needs to think about the fact that if athletes are worried about their parents, their performance is likely to be poor. Fundamentally, the NCAA and the other heads of college sports need to think about the significance of compensating college athletes, as it is more beneficial to them as compared to other students. Additionally, paying college athletes will indicate that their needs are being recognized, and hence, paying them will be the proper step undertaken to assist them financially.

The approach of compensating college athletes is appropriate because it assures them that in the absence of not getting a college degree, they are in the position to earn from the games they play. Even though college athletes are not professionals, it is also not wrong to compensate their hard and dedicated effort applied to the games. The excuses offered by the NCAA are that they offer students scholarships, which is good because they deserve it, but the approach is not enough. It is only right for the NCAA to come up with better ways of compensating college athletes because it is the students who pay them. Unfortunately, paying the athletes is not going to be an easy task in modern society because of the corrupt NCAA and other related stakeholders involved.

Former student players’ names and their appearance in products like video games are utilized by colleges without their consent; hence, it is appropriate to compensate them for their efforts. Despite the fact that college athletes are aware of their rights, the NCAA does not consider the relevance of doing what is right. The outcome of the ignorance displayed by the NCAA and other associated stakeholders is that an increase for the demand of the rights of college athletes increases on a daily basis. College athletes need to be compensated because they often risk their lives trying help the college stay on top and to be paid better. Significantly, paying college athletes is a fundamental and appropriate entity because it shows that their efforts are appreciated and valued.

The issue of college athletics and sports is a lucrative business, which is the reason the institutions like the NCAA and other related stakeholders earn huge profits from the business. The games that are often arranged at the stadiums contribute positively to the communities that live near such events, as they are able to accommodate students through hotels and offer food products that might be needed by the athletes and the spectators in general. To show appreciation for the college sports individuals, the NCAA has to come up with strategies that can be utilized to thank the athletes. The best approach under debate within the United States is compensating them with money. It is the right move because the students put in significant efforts and make sacrifices for the school team.

Summing up, the paper indicates that the college athletes are neglected and ignored on the matters associated with compensation. The NCAA and other college related stakeholders do not do what is right because of matters associated with corruption. The outcome of the corrupt institutions is that college athletes are only offered scholarships that can be used for a period of one year and can be terminated at any time by their coach. Significantly, strategies of compensating college athletes need to be initiated to ascertain the athletes that their efforts in sports are recognized. Compensating college athletes or sports students will motivate them by assuring them that their future is on the right track in case they fail to attain a college degree for their academic career.

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